Nouns Definition and Examples

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Singular and Plural Nouns

1.Regular Plurals

a) Most nouns for their plural by adding -s to the singular noun.

book ⇢ books day ⇢ days girl ⇢ girls

b) We add -es is to the singular noun ends in -ch, -sh, -s or -x.

church ⇢ churches dish ⇢ dishes bus ⇢ bushes box ⇢ boxes

c) Some nouns ending in -o (tomato, potato, echo, hero, negro are the most common) add -es in the plural. Other nouns ending in -o add -s only.

tomato ⇢ tomatoes potato ⇢ potatoes piano ⇢ pianos radio ⇢ radios

d) Nouns ending in a consonant + – y, change  -y to -i and add -es.

baby ⇢ babies factory ⇢ factories lorry ⇢ lorries

2. Irregular Plurals

a) Some nouns ending in -f / -fe drop the -f / -fe  and add -ves in the plural.

half ⇢ halves thief ⇢ thieves leaf ⇢ leaves knife ⇢ knives wife ⇢ wives life ⇢ lives

b) Some nouns form the plural by changing their vowel(s).      

*The plural of mouse is mice.

foot ⇢ feet tooth ⇢ teeth goose ⇢ geese man ⇢ men woman ⇢ women mouse ⇢ mice.

c) A few nouns form the plural with -en.

child ⇢ children ox ⇢ oxen

d) Some nouns have the same form in the singular and plural.

sheep ⇢ sheep deer ⇢ deer fish ⇢ fish aircraft ⇢ aircraft series ⇢ series species ⇢ species

e) Some nouns borrowed from Greek and latin have Greek or Latin plural endings.

crisis ⇢ crises phenomenon ⇢ phenomena

f) The usual plural of person is people. (not persons)            

*Fish is the normal plural of fish; fishes is also possible, but less usual.

person ⇢ people

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